samedi 10 décembre 2016

Le chirurgien de Napoléon III

Chirurgien de Napoléon III. Auguste Nélaton (1807-1873) 

Denis Hannotin

Avant Propos : Eric Anceau / Préface : Dr. Judet / Postface : Francis Choisel

L'Harmattan
novembre 2016 • 370 pages
ISBN : 978-2-917232-54-5


Auguste Nélaton suit l'Empereur depuis 1864 et est nommé "Chirurgien ordinaire" en 1866 et "Chirurgien Consultant des Maisons Impériales Napoléon" en 1869. Le retrouver ici, c'est partager avec lui les souffrances qu'a connues Napoléon III des années 1860 jusqu'à ce funeste 9 janvier 1873 et partager ses inquiétudes et ainsi prendre conscience des lourdes responsabilités de tout médecin en charge de la santé d'un chef d'Etat. En l'occurrence, comment ne pas s'interroger sur celle de Napoléon III face au contexte politique international à la veille de cette guerre de 1870.


Journal of Social History of Medicine & Health

Journal of Social History of Medicine & Health

Call for papers

The History Department of Shanghai University has established a new history of medicine journal titled "Journal of Social History of Medicine & Health". I've copied the call for papers below. They are very keen on receiving contributions in global health history and premodern medicine, and are planning a special premodern issue in the new future. 

Scholars from around the world have long been interested in researching the social history of medicine and health. A recent series of crises, such as the global spread of SARS, H7N9, Ebola and other diseases, have drawn attention on disease within a globalized world. This trend will be strengthened by upcoming challenges such as climate change, mass migration, economic crises and other factors, which are likely to affect global health during the 21st century. A sound understanding of the historical context of these ongoing and future challenges is crucial for debating and analyzing these problems and possible repercussions. The History Department at Shanghai University has established the “Journal of Social History of Medicine & Health” published twice a year by China Social Sciences Press. It aims to promote dialogue and cooperation within the international academic community, to develop historical analysis using a broad range of historical data and methodology, and to strengthen communication between different disciplines. The journal will include the following sections: “Roundtable Discussion”, “Research Papers”, “Introduction to Archives and Documents”, “Reviews”, “Book Reviews”, among other columns.
The proposed journal is committed to high academic quality, originality and pioneering research that pushes academic frontiers and promotes the use of original historical data combined with the methods and questions of interdisciplinary research. The journal will attempt to promote in-depth research into the study of the history of the transmission of diseases, the dissemination of medical and health knowledge and the interaction of economics, politics, culture, military affairs, environmental concerns and religion for human health. It will particularly encourage research into modern and premodern health policy, and how their establishment and development addressed the challenges of their times. The journal will also endeavor to provide a platform for research into the social history of medicine, critically debating preventive and therapeutic measures and solutions for public security crises, on a local, national and global level.
We invite submissions of both long and short papers on a broad range of topics that combine rigorous historical research on past, present and future health challenge from scholars in China and abroad. In addition to original papers, reviews of pertinent trends in domestic and international research, book reviews, interviews and research in other related aspects will also be considered. Multiple submissions are not allowed.

Notes:
1. Please submit your paper by Email.
2. Papers should include abstracts of 200 characters or words, and 3 to 5 key words. 
3. Each submission should include a separate page stating the name(s), institution(s), and contact information for the author(s).
4. Papers will be subject to blind peer-review by experts. Authors will receive news on whether their paper has been accepted or not within one month.
5. Chicago citation style should be used through the paper, including the notes and quotations.

We are happy to advise you on submissions. Please contact the Editorial Office at jshm2016@126.com .
The Editorial Office of “Journal of Social History of Medicine and Health”

Ecole d'été en histoire des sciences de la vie

Cycles of Life. Fifteenth Ischia Summer School on the History of the Life Sciences

Call for applications

‘Villa Dohrn’, Ischia, Italy, 24 June – 1 July 2017

Organizers: Janet Browne (Harvard), Christiane Groeben (Naples), Nick Hopwood (Cambridge), Staffan Müller-Wille (Exeter) and Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (Naples)

Applications are invited for this week-long summer school, which provides advanced training in history of the life sciences through lectures, seminars and discussions in a historically rich and naturally beautiful setting. The theme for 2017 is ‘Cycles of Life’. The confirmed faculty are Warwick Anderson (University of Sydney), Peder Anker (New York University), Ariane Droescher (University of Bologna), Guido Giglioni (Warburg Institute, London), Mathias Grote (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin), Shigehisa Kuriyama (Harvard University), Maaike van der Lugt (Université Paris Diderot), Lynn Nyhart (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (MPIWG, Berlin) and Lucy van der Wiel (University of Cambridge).

Funding: Wellcome Trust, National Science Foundation

Deadline for applications: 28 February 2017

More information: <http://ischiasummerschool.org/>

The theme
In the early twenty-first century, organisms are understood as having life cycles, inherited sequences of stages through which they reproduce and adapt to environmental challenges. Strategies to disrupt pest and pathogen life cycles play key roles in agriculture, biomedicine and public health. Organisms are also connected to each other, as well as to the air, soil, rocks and water, by material fluxes forming ‘biogeochemical’ cycles. The continual recycling of such elements and compounds as carbon, nitrogen and water links the life and environmental sciences from biochemistry to geology and ecology. The effects of human activities on these nutrient cycles threaten us with climate change, resource depletion and pollution, some of the biggest challenges in global politics today. Yet if cycles are topical, they are neither all new, nor all the same. Cycles of various kinds are among the oldest ways of framing human existence on earth and in the cosmos, and of thinking about health and disease, animals and plants – and at least calendars and seasons remain fundamental. This summer school seeks to understand the history of ‘cycles of life’ from early times to the present day, to trace connections and to identify patterns of continuity and change.

Cycles of generation and corruption, and of the transformation of the elements, have long structured knowledge and everyday life. The revolutions of the celestial bodies were thought to shape repeated events in the sublunary sphere, from the succession of the seasons to women’s monthly bleeding. Linking microcosm and macrocosm, William Harvey likened the circulation of the blood to the weather cycle. Human beings, their bodily constitutions and fever cycles determined by natal astrology, proceeded through the seven ages of man (or woman) in the hope that individual death would be followed by not just a new generation, but also spiritual rebirth. Religious festivals, calendars and almanacs followed an annual cycle, although Judaeo-Christian theology was based on a finite, arrow-like chronology that would provide an important resource for a transformation in conceptions of time around 1800.

In the Age of Revolutions this world was reconceived as a historical phenomenon subject to natural law. Enlightenment savants, notably William Hutton and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, proposed that nature ran in perpetual cycles. Hutton’s earth was a machine like a steam-engine for producing worlds without beginning or end; in Lamarck’s transformism spontaneous generation initiated series upon series of ascending forms. By the nineteenth century theories of evolution were founded on the reality of irreversible change, not least through extinction. Individual organisms were understood to develop through life cycles that occasionally showed ‘alternation of generations’, the phenomenon of a species appearing in two different forms, such that an individual would resemble its grandmother and granddaughters, but not mother or daughters. Rich studies of life cycles led to new understanding of the reproduction of plants and animals, with perturbations providing variations from which nature would select.

The ground was laid for a more general view of cycles of life and nutrition during the debates that in the mid-1800s pitted Louis Pasteur against Justus Liebig and defined the roles of biology and chemistry in explaining the phenomena of generation, contagion and putrefaction. Biologically, life, even microscopic life, came to be understood as arising not spontaneously, but strictly from reproduction of the same species. Chemically, the cycles were more promiscuous: in accordance with the principle of the conservation of matter, microbes made new life possible by rotting dead bodies, returning their molecules to the earth and making them available for another organism. Pasteur taught that life stems from death and death from life in an eternal cycle. Chemical changes in individual bodies — Liebig’s ‘metamorphoses’, or ‘metabolism’ as it came to be known — were thus linked to life cycles and the larger circulation of elements. Fundamental cycles of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and carbon assimilation were identified in plants.

Biological cycles gained currency in the mid-twentieth century, from the citric acid (Krebs) to the menstrual cycle, from nutrient to cell cycles. On a larger scale, by deploying radioactive isotopes as tracers after World War II, ecologists such as Evelyn Hutchinson followed carbon and phosphorus through biogeochemical cycles that included living and non-living compartments of ‘ecosystems’. Cyberneticians touted ‘circular systems’ as a general key to ‘self-regulating processes, self-orientating systems and organisms, and self-directing personalities’; and feedback became a standard concept. Control techniques were invented to intervene in biological cycles and create artificial ones, from the oral contraceptive pill and IVF treatment to the thermal cycling that drives the polymerase chain reaction.

Historians have investigated only a few biological cycles and largely in isolation; this school aims to encourage synthesis. We shall explore shared properties of cycles, and the differences and relations between one discipline or research programme and another and over the centuries. Modern metabolic and diurnal cycles oscillate. Life cycles are directional and their individual spans finite. Heredity and evolution work through their succession and endless variation. Ecological cycles are open-ended – and yet the ideal of a return to an original state underpins all modern conservation and restoration work. Concepts of cyclicity in the life sciences thus operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales, and at the same time constitute a productive point of intersection with physics, chemistry, geology and economics. How much the various modern and premodern cycles have in common, or what biological cycles share with those in other sciences, and other domains of knowledge and practice, are open questions. The theme ‘cycles of life’ invites fresh engagement with the history of the life sciences over the long term.

vendredi 9 décembre 2016

Prostitution et Révolution

Prostitution et Révolution. Les femmes publiques dans la cité républicaine (1789-1804)

Clyde Plumauzille



Champ-Vallon
À paraître le 4 novembre 2016
14 x 22 cm, 350 pages
ISBN 979-10-267-0066-1
27 €

Voici la première enquête historique jamais réalisée sur la prostitution à l’heure de la Révolution française, une période clé pour comprendre la place des prostituées dans notre République. A travers cette histoire des femmes publiques en Révolution, ce sont les origines des politiques contemporaines de la prostitution qui se dévoilent.
La Révolution française marque en effet un tournant inédit dans l’appréhension de la prostitution. En dépénalisant cette activité tout en maintenant un contrôle policier sur les femmes qui l’exercent, elle fait des prostituées, « femmes infâmes » de l’Ancien Régime, des citoyennes diminuées de la République.
Dans cette riche enquête historique où se côtoient femmes publiques, bons bourgeois, policiers et hommes de loi, la prostitution vient révéler les frontières morales du projet révolutionnaire et proposer une histoire de la sexualité sous la Révolution française.
Alors que sonne le glas des grands bordels de l’Ancien Régime, que fut la prostitution au tournant des XVIIIe et XIXe siècles ? Le commerce du sexe a-t-il constitué un enjeu pour les révolutionnaires qui mettent alors la régénération morale à l’ordre du jour ? Spécialiste de l’histoire révolutionnaire et de l’histoire des femmes et du genre, l’auteur dévoile et les transformations et les paradoxes d’une période charnière.
À la croisée de l’histoire des femmes et du genre, de l’histoire de la Révolution française mais également des apports de la sociologie et des sciences politiques, cet ouvrage revient sur les fantasmes et les préjugés qui trop souvent résument l’histoire de la prostitution révolutionnaire, enquête empirique à l’appui.

Cité et citoyenneté des Lumières

Cité et citoyenneté des Lumières



Appel à communications



Séminaire international des jeunes dix-huitièmistes

Montréal, 11-15 septembre 2017


La Société internationale d’étude du dix-huitième siècle (SIEDS) sollicite des contributions de chercheurs se rattachant à tous les domaines de la recherche dix-huitiémiste dans le cadre d’un Séminaire international d’une semaine.D’abord connu sous le nom de Séminaire Est-Ouest, cet événement réunit chaque année des jeunes chercheurs provenant de plusieurs pays. En 2017, cette rencontre aura lieu à Montréal (Canada) et sera co-organisée par l’Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) et le Groupe de recherche en histoire des sociabilités (GRHS).

Le Séminaire se déroulera du lundi 11 septembre au vendredi 15 septembre 2017 à Montréal. Ces rencontres sont placées sous la direction scientifique de Pascal Bastien (Histoire, UQAM), Marc André Bernier (Lettres, UQTR), Sébastien Charles (Philosophie, UQTR), Peggy Davis (Histoire de l’art, UQAM), Benjamin Deruelle (Histoire, UQAM), Geneviève Lafrance (Études littéraires, UQAM), Laurent Turcot (Histoire, UQTR).

Le Séminaire sera aussi l’occasion de rendre hommage à l’un de ses fondateurs, le professeur Robert Darnton (Harvard University), dont la contribution pionnière pour la SIEDS sera soulignée.

La thématique générale du Séminaire sera : Cité et citoyenneté des Lumières



Problématique
Le séminaire international des jeunes dix-huitiémistes de la SIEDS entend réfléchir aux fondements de l’engagement et de la mobilisation politique avant l’avènement de la démocratie symbolisée par les révolutions du XIXe siècle.

La « citoyenneté » au XVIIIe siècle n’était pas encore celle qui régit aujourd’hui le droit de propriété, l’égalité devant les tribunaux, ou même le suffrage : processus bien plus qu’un statut juridique, cette citoyenneté fut une appropriation d’un espace et des sociabilités qui s’y jouaient et constitua, fondamentalement, une culture civique. Or cette culture civique ou citoyenne peut se révéler à travers l’unité d’un espace urbain, pensé ou incarné ici par la « cité ».

L’espace public est-il strictement un espace urbain ? Comment, dans la ville du XVIIIe siècle, est comprise la notion de citoyenneté urbaine? Comment la critique et les idées des Lumières s’articulaient-elles avec les enjeux immédiats du vivre-ensemble et de la société à construire? La cité du XVIIIe siècle fut-elle déjà, en soi, une uchronie en débats?

Faite de discours et de pratiques, réservoir d’identités et de solidarités, la sociabilité est le territoire d’enquête pour qui veut saisir les différentes formes d’esprit public et d’investissement citoyen, à tout le moins pour l’espace urbain. Le séminaire entend donc réfléchir à l’engagement citoyen au XVIIIe siècle, en sollicitant et en croisant les représentations, les discours, les pratiques et les sociabilités de l’action politique au siècle des Lumières.

On pourra consulter une description détaillée de la thématique du Séminaire à l’adresse suivante : http://www.grhs.uqam.ca/



Soumettre une proposition
Les propositions doivent procéder d’un projet de recherche original (une thèse de doctorat par exemple) qui concerne l’un des axes de la thématique. Comme il s’agit non pas d’un colloque, mais bien d’un séminaire, chaque participant disposera d’environ une heure pour présenter son texte ainsi que sa problématique qui feront ensuite l’objet d’une discussion en commun. Les deux langues officielles du Séminaire sont l’anglais et le français.

Les propositions de chercheurs qui sont au début de leur carrière universitaire (doctorat ou équivalent soutenu depuis moins de six ans) seront considérées en priorité sur les autres.

Les membres du Comité organisateur ne retiendront qu’un maximum de 15 propositions.

Chaque proposition doit comporter les pièces suivantes :

_ un bref curriculum vitæ où figure la date d’obtention du doctorat (PhD ou l’équivalent) ;

_ une liste des principales publications et des communications prononcées

au cours des trois dernières années ;

_ une courte description de l’intervention (environ 2 pages à interligne simple) ;

_ une lettre de recommandation.


Hébergement et transport
Les frais d’hébergement seront couverts dans leur intégralité par les organisateurs, qui s’occuperont de la réservation des chambres d’hôtel. Les autres frais de transport et de séjour font présentement l’objet d’une demande de financement auprès du gouvernement du Canada : si le Séminaire devait profiter d’un tel financement, les billets d’avion et les autres frais de séjour (déjeuners et dîners) pourraient être pris en charge par les organisateurs.


Publication des Actes
Comme chaque année, les actes de ce séminaire sont destinés à paraître chez Honoré Champion (Paris), dans la collection « Lumières internationales ».



Échéancier

Nous invitons les candidats à soumettre leur proposition avant le 30 janvier 2017.

Les demandes doivent être transmises par courriel au principal organisateur du Séminaire,

Pascal Bastien : bastien.pascal@uqam.ca

Les politiques sur l'alcool et les drogues dans l'histoire

Drinking and Drug Policies in History: Contextualizing Causes and Consequences


Call for papers 


Alcohol and Drugs History Society conference, 22-25 June 2017, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

The twentieth century dawned with an unparalleled drive to regulate the production, distribution, and consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive substances. Many countries have developed their own specific historical trajectories of substance regulation, consumption, and user cultures. This regulatory drive continued into the 21st century, where today we live once more in a period of decisive regulatory changes and discussion. For instance as can be seen in the submission of national regulations in Europe to EU directives. On the other hand, the ‘war on drugs’ is now more contested than ever before.
Global discussions have intensified concerning the consequences, feasibility, and desirability of drug prohibition. Moreover, the rise of virtual communities of substance use defies regulation within national borders.
To befit the context of this global discussion, and to stimulate comparative transnational research on substance use and regulation, the organizers of the conference would like to invite contributions addressing histories, problems and consequences of substance regulation in their wider contexts - including political, social, and cultural developments, as well as responses by and consequences for civil society, communities, and individuals.

Questions may include but are not restricted to the following:
➢ To what extent were regulatory practices shaped and determined by national, local, or international factors?
➢ How did user cultures and consumption develop within the context of changing regimes, for instance in specific national or urban settings?
➢ How and why did substance use and substance regulation differ between periods and regions?
➢ How can we explain similarities and dissimilarities between regulation of different substances (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, ‘drugs’) and their consequences, and other regulatory regimes (e.g., food, medicine, gambling, etc.).
➢ How did legal markets and illegal economies, their impact on social, cultural and political life, and trading and trafficking patterns and routes develop in the context of changing regulation?
➢ What was the role of media debates and public discourses on changing regulatory regimes and on their impact?

➢ Finally, in light of the increasing availability of digitized sources the organizers are particularly interested in methodological contributions: on availability of sources in general, and on the impact of digitization of sources and the possibilities of using advanced text mining tools for transnational comparative research in alcohol and drug history in particular.


Proposals for papers (300 words and a short CV) and sessions can be send to Stephen Snelders (s.a.m.snelders@uu.nl) or Lisanne Walma (l.w.b.walma@uu.nl) before 15 December 2016. More information is available on https://adhs2017.wordpress.com/

jeudi 8 décembre 2016

Histoire de l'électroconvulsivothérapie

Electroconvulsive Therapy in America: The Anatomy of a Medical Controversy 

Jonathan Sadowsky



Series: Routledge Studies in Cultural History (Book 49)
Hardcover: 182 pages
Publisher: Routledge (November 14, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-1138696969


Electroconvulsive Therapy is widely demonized or idealized. Some detractors consider its very use to be a human rights violation, while some promoters depict it as a miracle, the "penicillin of psychiatry." This book traces the American history of one of the most controversial procedures in medicine, and seeks to provide an explanation of why ECT has been so controversial, juxtaposing evidence from clinical science, personal memoir, and popular culture. Contextualizing the controversies about ECT, instead of simply engaging in them, makes the history of ECT more richly revealing of wider changes in culture and medicine. It shows that the application of electricity to the brain to treat illness is not only a physiological event, but also one embedded in culturally patterned beliefs about the human body, the meaning of sickness, and medical authority.

Bourses de recherche de la Osler Library

Research Awards at the Osler Library 


Call for applications

Each year the Osler Library proudly offers a number of awards and travel grants to local and international historians, physicians, graduate and post-doctoral students, and those interested in the arts and humanities of medical history. We are currently accepting applications for the following awards/grants and kindly ask you to share this notice widely within your own networks, listservs, and social media outlets to help us spread the word:

Dr. Edward H. Bensley Osler Library Research Travel Grant - Awarded to those whose project requires traveling to Montreal to consult material in the Osler Library. Each year up to $4000 in awards will be made available to one or more individuals who require a minimum of 2 weeks to carry out their research. This research must fall within the calendar year in which the grant is awarded. Applications for the 2017 grant must be received by December 31, 2016.

Mary Louise Nickerson Award in Neuro History - Awarded to one or more scholars who are interested in carrying out research utilizing the neuro-historical Print, archival and artifact collections – the centre-piece of which is the Penfield Archive in the Osler Library – and other available resources at the Osler Library, the Montreal Neurological Institute, and the McGill University Archives. Applications for the 2017 grant must be received by December 31, 2016.

Dr. Dimitrije Pivnicki Award in Neuro and Psychiatric History - Awarded to one or more students and/or scholars wishing to carry out research utilizing the rich archival and monographic holdings at McGill University, such as the Penfield Archive, and other resources available at the Osler Library (see McGill Library Catalogue and the Osler Library Archives Collection), the Montreal Neurological Institute, and the McGill University Archives. Applications for the 2017 grant must be received by December 31, 2016.

Additional information on terms, requirements, how to apply, previous winners, and general information about the Osler Library can be found here. We welcome all further inquiries at osler.library@mcgill.ca or 514-398-4475, ext. 09873.

Thank you for your help in sharing information about these fantastic opportunities!