dimanche 26 mars 2017

Histoire des systèmes de santé africains

Historical Perspectives on the State of Health and Health Systems in Africa, Volume I: The Pre-Colonial and Colonial Eras 

Mario J. Azevedo

Series: African Histories and Modernities
Hardcover: 382 pages
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; 1st ed. 2017 edition (January 31, 2017)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-3319324609

This book examines the historical and current state of health and the health of the African people, including the Arab North, impacted by such factors as geography and natural elements, cultural and colonial traditions, and competing biomedical and traditional systems. It also looks at technological advances, poverty and health disparities, utilization of resources, and international presence, as reflected by the work of the World Health Organization, and structural adjustments imposed by the IMF and the World Bank.

La peste noire dans les pays scandinaves

The Black Death and Later Plague Epidemics in the Scandinavian Countries: Perspectives and Controversies

Benedictow, Ole Jørgen

De Gruyter 
736 pages
To be published: March 2017
ISBN 978-3-11-036815-4

This monograph represents an expansion and deepening of previous works by Ole J. Benedictow - the author of highly esteemed monographs and articles on the history of plague epidemics and historical demography. In the form of a collection of articles, the author presents an in-depth monographic study on the history of plague epidemics in Scandinavian countries and on controversies of the microbiological and epidemiological fundamentals of plague epidemics.

Histoire du vieilissement en santé

Histories of Healthy Ageing


University of Groningen, 21-23 June 2017

As Western populations grow increasingly older, 'healthy ageing' is presented as one of today's greatest medical and societal challenges. However, contrary to what many policy makers want us to believe, the aspiration to live long, healthy and happy lives is not a problem specific to our times. On the contrary successful ageing has a long history.

The conference Histories of Healthy Ageing is based on the assumption that 'healthy ageing' has informed the medical agenda since Antiquity. With 'healthy ageing' we refer to ways of thinking about and treating the body not only from a medical perspective, but also taking into account questions of what constitutes a happy and fulfilled life. In particular these latter issues were central to medicine before 1800 and relate to healthy living as much as to questions connected specifically to old age. Thus whether we speak of classic ways of training the athlete's body, medieval religious rites, the pre-modern obsession with regimen (rules for living a healthy life), or the upper-class fancy to visit spas, at the root of it all was a wish for wellbeing, health and longevity.

Info, Programme and Registration: www.historiesofhealthyageing.nl


Conference location: VAN SWINDEREN HUYS



Coffee & Tea

13.30 – 14.15

Welcome and Keynote lecture on Airs & Places

Rina Knoeff (Groningen): From Places of Illness to Regions of Health:On the Eighteenth-Century Changing Politics of the Airs, Waters and Places Tradition in the Low Countries

14.45 – 15.45

František Šimon (Šafárik University):Six res non naturales according to Celsus

Melina Kostidi (Thessaly):Greek Spas and Healthy Ageing: Nineteenth-Century Medical Texts on Thermal and Sea Baths

15.15 – 15.45 Break

15.45 – 16.30
Irina Metzler (Swansea):Keynote lecture on Emotional Balance

16.30 – 18.00
James Kennaway (Groningen):Passions of the Mind

Jacomien Prins (Warwick):Health and Happiness in Self-Help Books of the Italian Renaissance

Tessa Storey (Royal Holloway, London): Readership and Healthy Ageing Advice

Welcome reception / City of Groningen
Opening Exhibition and museum visit Gelukkig Gezond! Histories of Healthy Ageing


8.30 – 9.00 Coffee / Tea

9.00 – 9.45
Onno van Nijf (Groningen): Keynote lecture on Exercise & Rest

9.45 – 10.45

Marieke Hendriksen (Utrecht):Healthy Feet between Theory and Technique:(Re)constructing Camper's Ideal Shoe

Megan Williams (Groningen):"Sum mortalis, et senex, et laborans podagra": Negotiating Healthy Aging in Early Modern Diplomacy

10.45 – 11.15 Break

11.15 – 12.45
Narratives of Healthy Ageing

Siglinde Clementi (Bozen-Bolzano):Healthy Body and Good Life as Unreacheable Ideals: The Case of the Trentino-Tyrolean Noblesman and Melancholic Osvaldo Ercole Trapp (1634–1710)

Jane Corrie (Glasgow):An Exemplary Retirement: William Cullen and the Art of Ageing in Enlightenment Scotland

Leonieke Vermeer (Groningen):Healthy through Writing?

12.45 – 13.30 Lunch

13.30 – 14.15
Keynote lecture on Food & Drink

Elizabeth Williams (Oklahoma):Eating after the Climacteric: Food, Gender, and Ageing in Early Modern and Enlightenment Medicine

14.15 – 16.15
Practitioner's Session (Chair: Jane MacNaughton)

Gerjan Navis (UMCG):
Let Food be thy Medicine: Histories of Nutrition and Healthy Ageing

Erik Buskens (UMCG):Noblesse Oblige

Paul Jutte (UMCG):
How 3D Technology Can Be Used to Improve Orthopedic Care

16.15 – 16.45 Break

16.45 – 17.45

Alexander Pyrges (Würzburg): Old, Fat, and Healthy? Exploring the Connection between Corpulence and Ageing in Early Modern Medical Literature

Anthony Mahler (Zürich):The Poet's Diet

Public Lecture
Robert Zwijnenberg (Leiden):Healthy Ageing and the Importance of Art


8.30 – 9.00 Coffee & Tea

9.00 – 9.45
Michael Stolberg (Würzburg):
Keynote Lecture on Excretion & Retention

9.45 – 10.45

Rebecca Fallas (Open University/Leeds): Menopause in the Hippocratic Corpus and the Biological Works of Aristotle

Natalie Köhle (ANU, Canberra):Perceiving, Purging, Preventing: Changing Conceptions of Phlegm in the History of Chinese Medicine

10.45 – 11.15 Break

11.15 – 12.45
Semen, Menses, Milk and Sweat Panel

Fabrizio Bigotti (Exeter):
"Medicina est additio et ablatio”:Santorio on the Prolongation of Life

Sarah Toulalan (Exeter):
Old Age and Sex in Early Modern Europe:"Exceedingly Hurtfull and Most Pernitious"

Ruben Verwaal (Groningen):
Crying Over Spilled Milk: Chemistry, Drugs, and Breastfeeding in the Eighteenth Century

12.45 – 13.45 Lunch

13.45 – 14.30 
William MacLehose (UC London):
Keynote Lecture on Sleeping & Waking

14.30 – 15.30

Catrien Santing (Groningen)

Zdeněk Žalud (South Bohemia):

Advices for Retardation of Ageing in Latin Manuscripts of Prague Libraries and their Intertextual Relations

15.30 – 16.00 Break

16.00 – 17.30
Appearances of Healthy Ageing

Katerina Georgoulia (York): "Aetatis Suae XXXV": Rubens' Body in the Prima of Life

Leo Delfgaauw (Hanze / Groningen): Topos of Ageing in Art

Cara Kiernan Fallon (Harvard): Surfaces: Successful Ageing and the Skin

17.30 – 18.00
Round Table
Comments and discussion with experts

Conference Dinner and Farewell Party at Café Hammingh in Garnwerd

samedi 25 mars 2017

Félix Vicq d'Azyr

Félix Vicq d'Azyr, créateur révolutionnaire de l'anatomie comparée 

Paul Mazliak

Broché: 198 pages
Editeur : Hermann (20 février 2017)
Collection : HR.HIST.SCIENCE
Langue : Français
ISBN-13: 978-2705693732

Le médecin français Félix Vicq d’Azyr (1748-1794) fut un précurseur révolutionnaire. En créant l’anatomie comparée, il ouvrit la voie à la théorie de l’évolution et, en étudiant les « maladies des bêtes à cornes » (épizooties), il souligna le lien entre connaissances scientifiques et développement économique de la société.
Les études de Vicq d’Azyr entraînèrent la création de la Société royale de médecine (1776), ancêtre de l’actuelle Académie de médecine. Quant à son Nouveau plan de constitution de la médecine en France, présenté en 1790 devant l’Assemblée constituante, il contenait nombre de préconisations aujourd’hui réalisées : l’enseignement de la médecine se fait en français et non plus en latin, les matières fondamentales et les disciplines cliniques sont désormais associées dans les cursus, les centres hospitalo-universitaires ont été créés, les bourses d’études existent et la Sécurité sociale a vu le jour.

Le spiritualisme au XIXe siècle en Nouvelle-Orléans

Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century New Orleans: The Life and Times of Henry Louis Rey 

Melissa Daggett

 Hardcover: 208 pages
Publisher: University Press of Mississippi; 1 edition (December 2, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-1496810083

Modern American Spiritualism blossomed in the 1850s and continued as a viable faith into the 1870s. Because of its diversity and openness to new cultures and religions, New Orleans provided fertile ground to nurture Spiritualism, and many séance circles flourished in the Creole Faubourgs of Tremé and Marigny as well as the American sector of the city. Melissa Daggett focuses on Le Cercle Harmonique, the francophone séance circle of Henry Louis Rey (1831–1894), a Creole of color who was a key civil rights activist, author, and Civil War and Reconstruction leader. His life has so far remained largely in the shadows of New Orleans history, partly due to a language barrier.

Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century New Orleans focuses on the turbulent years between the late antebellum period and the end of Reconstruction. Translating and interpreting numerous primary sources and one of the only surviving registers of séance proceedings, Daggett has opened a window into a fascinating life as well as a period of tumult and change. She provides unparalleled insights into the history of the Creoles of color and renders a better understanding of New Orleans’s complex history. The author weaves an intriguing tale of the supernatural, of chaotic post-bellum politics, of transatlantic linkages, and of the personal triumphs and tragedies of Rey as a notable citizen and medium. Wonderful illustrations, reproductions of the original spiritual communications, and photographs, many of which have never before appeared in published form, accompany this study of Rey and his world.

Fictions identitaires, fictions alimentaires

« Dis-moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai ce que tu es » : fictions identitaires, fictions alimentaires

Appel à communications

Colloque international, Strasbourg, 8-10 novembre 2017

L’aphorisme qui donne son titre à ce colloque est sans doute la formule la plus célèbre de Brillat-Savarin qui, dans sa Physiologie du goût (1825), ambitionnait de proposer une réflexion sur l’alimentation à la fois pratique, esthétique, philosophique, et sociopolitique. Très tôt repris dans le discours gastronomique du XIXe siècle, cet aphorisme délivre une vérité dont les discours anthropologique et sociologique se sont aujourd’hui emparés. En témoigne, en particulier, le développement des travaux relevant de l’histoire culturelle de l’alimentation et, dans le domaine anglo-saxon, les nombreuses approches contemporaines que les « food studies » essaient de fédérer.

Pour qui s’intéresse à « l’anthropos-mangeur » ou « phaganthrope » (Claude Fischler), le lien entre les choix alimentaires et la construction d’une identité constitue en effet une problématique centrale où se croisent facteurs physiologiques et idéologiques. Considérer le fait alimentaire comme un fait identitaire suppose certes que l’on s’interroge sur les goûts propres de l’individu, mais surtout sur la manière dont un contexte socioculturel les définit et induit une reconnaissance, comme l’appartenance à une communauté, une classe sociale, une nation, voire une « race » ou un « genre ». L’identité envisagée par le prisme de l’alimentation mobilise par conséquent un ensemble de représentations assez vaste, globalement « culturelles », mais qui s’ancrent dans une histoire (partagée ou refusée) et dans une idéologie (implicite ou revendiquée). Savoir qui l’on est par le biais de ce que l’on consomme pose finalement moins la question du rapport à soi (ce que j’aime, les goûts qui me définissent) que celle du rapport à l’Autre, tant il est vrai que l’incorporation constitue une expérience fondamentale de l’altérité, dont l’issue (rejet ou reconnaissance) dépasse le simple critère du penchant naturel. La relation que suppose cette incorporation témoigne en outre du poids de l’imaginaire dans l’élaboration du goût, l’aliment se trouvant investi de vertus magiques, positives ou négatives, et d’un ensemble de représentations dont l’évolution de la diététique ne rend que partiellement compte.

Étudiés de longue date par l’anthropologie historique, ces phénomènes parcourent également la littérature, sensible aux discours normatifs sur la nutrition mais aussi et surtout à la part d’imaginaire sollicitée par l’incorporation alimentaire. C’est cette mise en œuvre que le présent colloque souhaite constituer en objet d’étude littéraire, en analysant les implications et conséquences du célèbre aphorisme de Brillat-Savarin, et en explorant les fictions auxquelles il a pu fournir un principe de composition. Quelle est par exemple la place que l’œuvre littéraire accorde à l’alimentation dans la légitimation de déterminismes sociaux, sexuels ou raciaux ? Que disent les choix alimentaires des croyances représentées ? Dans quelle mesure participent-ils de la construction du personnage et de la mise en place d’une axiologie, voire d’une imagologie littéraire ?

Ouvertes d’un point de vue chronologique, les propositions de communication pourront se consacrer à l’archéologie de l’axiome de Brillat-Savarin, à son actualisation au XIXe siècle, ou à sa postérité. Elles devront néanmoins prendre pour cadre de référence la culture occidentale, et interroger la manière dont les pratiques alimentaires mobilisées dans la fiction participent d’une représentation identitaire.

Les propositions devront s’inscrire en priorité dans l’un des axes suivants :

Fictions alimentaires, fictions essentialistes :

- Identité alimentaire et identité sexuelle (ce que mangent les hommes / ce que mangent les femmes)

- Identité alimentaire et théories des races
Fictions alimentaires, fictions sociales :

- Choix alimentaires et appartenance sociale

- Choix alimentaires et choix politiques (y a-t-il une alimentation de gauche ou de droite ? quels liens sont établis entre régime politique et régime alimentaire ?) 
Fictions alimentaires et genèse

- Diététique et création (choix alimentaires et fables auctoriales)

- Alimentation et sémiologie du personnage

- Alimentation et mythes (ce que mangent les Dieux / ce que mangent les hommes ; Tantale, Midas, etc.)

Les propositions de communication, accompagnées d’une courte notice biobibliographique, sont à adresser à Bertrand Marquer (bmarquer@unistra.fr) avant le 15 mai 2017. Elles seront examinées par le comité scientifique, qui communiquera sa réponse fin juin.

Le colloque aura lieu à Strasbourg du 8 au 10 novembre 2017 et donnera lieu à publication.

Comité scientifique
Guy Ducrey (Université de Strasbourg)
Françoise Hache-Bissette (Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines)
Anthony Mangeon (Université de Strasbourg)
Hugues Marchal (Université de Bâle)
Bertrand Marquer (Université de Strasbourg)
Muriel Ott (Université de Strasbourg)
Christine Ott (Université de Francfort)
Éléonore Reverzy (Université Paris 3-Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Geneviève Sicotte (Université Concordia)

vendredi 24 mars 2017

Tertullien et l'enfant à naître

Tertullian and the Unborn Child: Christian and Pagan Attitudes in Historical Perspective

Julian Barr

Series: Medicine and the Body in Antiquity
Hardcover: 208 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (February 24, 2017)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-1472467409

Tertullian of Carthage was the earliest Christian writer to argue against abortion at length, and the first surviving Latin author to consider the unborn child in detail. This book is the first comprehensive analysis of Tertullian’s attitude towards the foetus and embryo. Examining Tertullian’s works in light of Roman literary and social history, Julian Barr proposes that Tertullian's comments on the unborn should be read as rhetoric ancillary to his primary arguments. Tertullian’s engagement in the art of rhetoric also explains his tendency towards self-contradiction. He argued that human existence began at conception in some treatises and not in others. Tertullian’s references to the unborn hence should not be plucked out of context, lest they be misread. Tertullian borrowed, modified, and discarded theories of ensoulment according to their usefulness for individual treatises. So long as a single work was internally consistent, Tertullian was satisfied. He elaborated upon previous Christian traditions and selectively borrowed from ancient embryological theory to prove specific theological and moral points. Tertullian was more influenced by Roman custom than he would perhaps have admitted, since the contrast between pagan and Christian attitudes on abortion was more rhetorical than real.

Grossesse et naissance

Pregnancy and Childbirth: History, Medicine and Anthropology. 

International Symposium

May, 30-31 2017

Sala della Societa’ Medica Chirurgica,
Palazzo dell’Archiginnasio, Piazza Galvani 1, Bologna.

30 May, Tuesday afternoon

14.30 - 15.00
Welcome and Introduction
Costanza Gislon Dopfel (Saint Mary’s College of California, USA) - Bruno Cola (Presidente della Società Medica Chirurgica di Bologna) - Luigi Tomassini (Direttore del Dipartimento di Beni Culturali)
Sala Società Medica Chirurgica, Palazzo dell'Archiginnasio, piazza Galvani 1, Bologna

15.00 - 15.30
Introductory Lecture
Charles Burnett (Warburg Institute, U.K)

Panel 1: Medicine and the Transmission of Knowledge
15.30 - 15.50
Abraham Ibn Ezra’s Role in the Creation and Diffusion of the Trutina Hermetis
Shlomo Sela (Dept. of Jewish Thought, Bar-Ilan University, State of Israel)
15.50 - 16.10
Fetal Death in High Medieval Pregnancy
Fiona Harris-Stoertz (Department of History, Trent University, Canada)
16.10 - 16.30
Postmortem Caesarean Section in the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period: Myth, Law, Religion and Surgery
Alessandra Foscati (Università di Bologna, Italy)
16.30 - 16.40 Coffee break

16.40 - 17.00
Risk as a Theme in the History of Childbirth
Adrian Wilson (Faculty of Arts, University of Leeds, U.K.)
17.00 - 17.20
Gravidanza e feto nelle dissertazioni mediche del XVIII secolo
Iolanda Ventura (Université d’Orléans – IRHT Paris)
17.20 - 17.40
Da Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire a Cesare Taruffi: alle origini della moderna teratologia
Stefano Arieti (Università di Bologna, Italy)
17.40 Discussion

18.00 Guided tour to Palazzo dell’Archiginnasio and the Anatomical Theatre

Cocktail party (dinner)

31 May, Wednesday

Panel 2: Texts and Iconography

9.30 - 9.50
Giving Birth in the Garden of Eden
Alessandro Scafi (Warburg Institute, U.K)
9.50 - 10.10
La figura di Eva, prima madre nella letteratura apocrifa e nell’iconografia armena
Valentina Calzolari Bouvier (Centre de recherches arménologiques, Université de Genéve, Switzerland)
10.10 - 10.30
The Origin and Role of Illustrations in Medieval Obstetrical Texts
Francesca Marchetti (Indipendent researcher, U.K.)
10.30 - 10.50
Reality and Imagination in the Iconography of the Lying-in Room
Costanza Gislon Dopfel (Dept. of Art and Art History)
10.50 - 11.10
La scena del parto. Un confronto fra fonti visive e testi scritti (XVI-XVIII s.)
Claudia Pancino (Università di Bologna, Italy)
11.10 - 11.20 Coffee break

11.20 Discussion

12.00 Guided tour to Palazzo Poggi and the “Sala di Ostetricia”
The tour will be guided by Roberto Balzani, Presidente del Sistema Museale di Ateneo

13.30 Lunch

Panel 3: Religion, Medicine, Law and Childbirth Rituals

15.00 - 15.20
Mesopotamian Childbirth Incantations
Lorenzo Verderame (Università di Roma, Italy)
15.20 - 15.40
Understanding the Role and Seat of Semen in Sasanian Iran during Late Antiquity
Paolo Delaini (Università di Bologna, Italy)
15.40 - 16.00
Vie dell’immaginario: sogni terapeutici e prassi votiva
Luigi Canetti (Università di Bologna, Italy)
16.00 - 16.20
‘E cussì se fanno homicidiale di proprii fioli’: parti gemellari tra teorie mediche e implicazioni morali dall’Antichità al Basso Medioevo
Gabriella Zuccolin (University of Cambridge, U.K)
16.20 - 16.40
Birth Girdles as Banderoles
Mary Morse (Rider University, USA)
16.40 - 17.00
Lo stato giuridico della madre e del neonato nelle colonie veneziane durante il Basso Medioevo
Antonella Parmeggiani (Università di Bologna, Italy)
17.00 - 17.20 Coffee break

Panel 4: Anthropology and Archaeology of Childbirth

17.20 - 17.40
Mother and Child: Archaeological Evidence of Childbirth Complications in Medieval Normandy
Cécile Chapelain de Seréville-Niel (CRAHAM) , Raphaëlle Lefebvre (CRAHAM-Inrap, France)
17.40 - 18.00
Il “venire alla luce” tra gioie e complicazioni. La casistica dei parti gemellari dal XVI al XVIII secolo sulla comunità alto appenninica di Roccapelago
Mirko Traversari (Università di Bologna, Italy) , Giorgio Gruppioni (Università di Bologna, Italy)
18.00 - 18.20
Tra le braccia della madre: evidenze antropologiche di morte al parto nella Ravenna del XVIII secolo
Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Sabrina Masotti (Università di Ferrara, Italy)
18.20 - 18.40
Tra antropologia, genetica ed ostetricia: studio di possibili casi di morte per parto nella necropoli ospedaliera di Forlì Campus (XVIII secolo)
Elisabetta Cilli (Università di Bologna) , Gaia Gabanini (Università di Bologna)
18.40 Discussion - Conclusion